Anarchism is the philosophy or belief that compulsory government (the State) is oppressive and undesirable and should be abolished. Some anarchist schools of thought are opposed to heirarchy in general, and government as a consequence. Anarchists contrast with minarchist libertarians (classic liberals) in that minarchists believe in a minimal "nightwatchman" State, where the only three functions of government are police, courts, and national defense.
Libertarians of the liberal tradition may find some inspiration in the individualist and mutualist anarchist traditions, but generally consider anarcho-socialist schools of thought to be unworkable and/or self-contradictory. The term "libertarian" was originally a synonym for "anarchist (e.g. "libertarian socialist") but since the 1960s has come to mean anarchist or minarchist pro-capitalist especially in English speaking countries. Since anarchism gives only one political position, the belief that the State is illegitimate, it varies considerably between schools.
Anarcho-capitalism is the anarchist form of libertarianism. Hyphenated forms of anarchism, like anarcho-capitalism and anarcho-socialism, specify additional beliefs. Greenor eco- anarchists emphasize concern for the environment, while anarcho-primitivists want to go back to a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. Crypto-anarchists are interested in creating cryptographic tools for financial privacy, anonymity, and secrecy. Most commonly, the hyphenated suffix specifies what property arrangements are preferred or predicted in a stateless society.
It is understood by all schools that in an anarchist system, all forms of voluntary economic exchanges would be competing in the market. However, there are sometimes sectarian accusations that another school's system would require a State, or would be a de facto State.
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